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A biophysical model describing quantum evolution of the circulation

The widely accepted theory of evolution acknowledges humans evolved from fish. From fossil records to gastrulation and gene sequences, there is abundant evidence of retained features tracking through the animal kingdom. The theory, however, lacks a ‘top-down’ biophysical model that traces the extant evolution of humans. The hypothesis of this paper is that growth of the animal is a priori directly related to the efficient circulation of blood in delivering life-giving oxygen.

Comparisons of the fossil record and molecular-based phylogenetic trees have led to the widely held view that birds and mammals evolved from fish and reptiles [1-5]. Despite deep insights into the formation and function of the heart [6-11], the resolution of the human circulation from that of the fish remains an evolutionary enigma.

Nearly 400 years ago, William Harvey determined that blood through the four-chambered heart circulates in a continuous loop. Intriguingly, a tube defining the human circuit requires a 360 degree longitudinal twist in the conduit in one direction, followed by a 360 degree longitudinal twist in the opposite direction.

Why should this be so? In fish, the two-chambered heart and great vessels are in line with the saggital, symmetric morphology.

While the four-chambered heart and central vascular system are obliquely suspended in the chest, the morphology of birds and mammals is symmetric in the vertically aligned saggital plane.  

It is evident that the circulation is a priori  to supply oxygen to the animal in the most immediate sense.  So how did the simple fish circulation evolve to become the complex human circulation

This theory looks at the circulation of haemoglobin, an iron-based metalloprotien, as a primary means for supporting the growth and form of animals. From this, a biophysical model of the evolution of the circulation, from fish to human, is hypothesised.